By James F. Adams, Samuel Merrill III, Bernard Grofman
The authors clarify how events and applicants place themselves at the Left-Right ideological size and different factor dimensions. Their unified theoretical method of voter habit and celebration options takes under consideration voter personal tastes, voter's partisan attachments, anticipated turnout, and the site of the political established order. The strategy, validated via large cross-national research, contains experiences of the plurality-based two-party contests within the U.S. and multiple-party festival in France, Britain, and Norway.
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Additional resources for A Unified Theory of Party Competition: A Cross-National Analysis Integrating Spatial and Behavioral Factors
Multidimensional utility functions are obtained by summing the corresponding one-dimensional utilities over the various issue dimensions. 2) j where a j denotes the policy-salience parameter for the jth issue. 2. 2; that is, they assume that voters evaluate the candidates entirely on the basis of their positions along important policy dimensions. This implies that voters 1 An alternative to quadratic utility is linear utility, in which the utility of a voter i for candidate k is given by Vi (k) = |xi − sk |.
With only two major parties in the United States, we cannot expect any divergence between optimal candidate strategies without additional centrifugal forces not introduced in earlier models. But abstention – a factor that is especially salient in United States elections – has such an effect. We model both abstention due to alienation and abstention due to indifference and find that the threat of abstention due to alienation (but not indifference) exerts a centrifugal influence leading to divergent party strategies at equilibrium, with each candidate shifting away from the mean voter position in the direction of his partisan supporters.
We also discuss topics for future research. 1). From the perspective of spatial modeling, these considerations differ from the voter-specific non-policy-related motivations discussed in this chapter – such as partisanship and voters’ sociodemographic characteristics – in that valence evaluations are typically modeled as being identical across voters. As we shall argue in subsequent chapters, voter-specific nonpolicy variables motivate policy divergence between candidates in ways that valence issues do not.