By Alan Mitchell, Jean-Paul Mouchet
This functional guide brings jointly a variety of bibliographic details on irregular pressures and provides the sensible event of the authors and numerous specialists inside of Elf-Aquitaine. essentially destined for day after day use through subsurface geologists and drilling engineers anyplace they're faced with the issues of overpressure, it describes a few of the origins of strain anomalies, and info the tools to be had for his or her prediction, detection and overview. it's going to even be important to petroleum geologists, petroleum engineers and reservoir engineers as a reference handbook.
checklist of vital Abbreviations
desk of Contents
1. strain strategies
2. The Origins of Non-Hydrostatic irregular Pressures
three. Prediction and Detection
four. Quantitative strain evaluate
five. precis and total Conclusions - aid Chart
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Extra info for Abnormal Pressures while Drilling - Origins, Prediction, Detection, Evaluation
WATER ESCAPE CURVE . (Schematic) (Powers, 1959 ) I I f I II II \ 2nd 1st Dehybrationl Lattice and water Stability zone \ / II II /t t Lattice water Stability zone lnterlayer water lsopleth t Deep burial I a Y b C Fig. 23. - Expulsion of water from clays during burial - models suggested by POWERS(1959)and BURST (1969) (in Burst, 1969, reprinted by permission of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists). 23A) : 1) free pore water expelled near the surface under the influence of pressure ; 2) interlayer water released gradually, first under the effects of pressure, then increasingly under the influence of temperature.
Abnormal pressure may therefore develop if this fluid cannot be expelled, but as the process takes place at shallow depth it is usually possible for the excess water to escape. Similarly, anhydrite rehydration is accompanied by an increase in volume of the same order. Louden suggests that such a process is capable of generating abnormal pressure, as 47 may be the case with the Mississippi Buckner Formation, whose approach marked by a gradual transition from anhydrite to gypsum. This second hypothesis is still highly debatable.
These means are not universally applicable, and their effectiveness varies from case to case. A number of methods are available for the qualitative or quantitative assessment of abnormal pressure. The first concern must be to study local structure and lithostratigraphy to reveal any closed system which may be present. This initial phase may be able to detect zones of potential risk, and must be incorporated into the preparatory stages of the drilling programme, even though it can give no guarantees about the presence and magnitude of abnormal pressure.