By Jason S. Lee
Abstraction is one side of highbrow functioning. The examine of abstraction permits tremendous precious insights into human intelligence. whereas this monograph shows that the facility to imagine abstractly declines a bit of with age, there are many variables identifying summary considering and its relation to intelligence over the life-span. This monograph defines abstraction from all angles of concept, contrasting it with high-order considering and stereotyped considering; it discusses and evaluates exams of summary considering; and it offers new findings in sociological and mental study on abstraction.
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Extra info for Abstraction and Aging: A Social Psychological Analysis
According to Jarvik and Bank (1983, p. " Indeed, the authors report that a number of abilities declined only in the ninth decade of life. 3. The Seattle Longitudinal Study Schaie's Seattle Longitudinal Study (SLS) has produced a cornucopia of important data and research pertaining to adult intellectual development. , 1984, p. 40; Hom & Donaldson, 1976, p. 703). The SLS began in 1956 and spanned a 21-year period during which time there were 4 testings, each separated by 7 years. The population frame was obtained by random selection from an age- and sex-stratified list of members of the Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound (the first broad-based health maintenance organization in the United States).
Initially, 134 pairs of twins (white residents from the state of New York aged 60 years or older) were given a battery of tests designed to measure intellectual functioning. The battery consisted primarily of five subtests from the Wechsler-Bellevue scale: Similarities, Digits Forward and Backward, Digit Symbol Substitution, and Block Design. Surviving twin pairs were retested in 1955, 1957, 1967 (when the average age was about 85), and for the last time in 1973. According to Jarvik and Bank (1983, p.
In sum, these limitations caution that some results from longitudinal studies of intellectual change in adulthood are likely to be biased in the opposite direction of cross-sectional studies on this topic. Confounded age and period effects, 7Evidence in support of this basic proposition is reviewed in the following chapter. 6. Shortcomings of Longitudinal Designs and Studies 39 attrition related to the dependent variable(s) of the study, nonrepresentativeness of (often) elite samples, even the tendency to draw generalizations from a relatively narrow age range (Salthouse, 1982, pp.