By Godehard Link
The philosophical technique of this quantity is especially structuralist, utilizing logical instruments to enquire the formal constitution of varied forms of gadgets in our international, as characterized by means of language and as systematised through philosophy. This quantity commonly analyses the structural houses of collections or pluralities (with purposes to the philosophy of set theory), homogeneous items like water, and the semantics and philosophy of occasions. This ebook thereby enhances algebraic paintings that has been performed on different philosophical entities, i.e. propositions, houses, relatives, or occasions. positioned within the triangle of language, good judgment and philosophy, this quantity is exclusive in combining the assets of other ?elds in an interdisciplinary company. 1/2 the fourteen chapters of this quantity are unique papers, complementing the gathering of the author's formerly released essays at the topic.
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Extra info for Algebraic Semantics in Language and Philosophy
D. George and Martha got married. George and Martha are husband and wife. e. A boy and a girl played in the backyard. f. The Leitches and the Latches come together. g. Three men and four women joined. h. Several men and a few women gathered. (45a) is synonymous to George is asleep and Martha is asleep. The collective verb meet in b) does not admit such a paraphrase; nor does got married in c) when it is interpreted as got married to each other. (45d) is even more complex. Whereas in (45a - c) we can replace George and Martha by Martha and George without affecting the truth value it is also the order of the NPs conjoined that matters in (45d).
Carlson (1977, 1978) prefers to speak of kinds of things, instead of their classes, to which BPs refer. In fact Carlson argues for a semantical analysis that treats all BPs as kind-denoting terms. I am not going into this general claim here; I shall rather draw on the wide range of data provided by Carlson's work to present and discuss some important aspects of BP constructions. 9 ). TYPES OF PLURAL CONSTRUCTIONS (9) a. Unicorns have horns, b. Beavers build dams. 39 Other generic constructions involving BPs are (10) John repairs cars for a living.
A child built the raft. b. 3x (Px A Qx) a. Children built the raft. b. 3x (*Px A Qx) a. The child built the raft. b. 3y (y = ixPx A Qy) a. The children built the raft. b. 3y (y = cr*xPx A Qy) a. Every child saw the raft. b. Vx ( P x —» Qx) a. All the children built the raft. b. Vy ( y = a*xPx -» Qx) a. Tom and Dick carried the piano upstairs. b. P (a ® b) a. Tom and Dick carried the piano upstairs, so Dick and Tom carried it upstairs. b. P (a ® b) =>• P (b ® a) a. John and Paul are pop stars and George is a pop star, so John, Paul, and George are pop stars.