By S. McEvoy-Levy
This booklet examines a serious time and position in contemporary global history--the finish of the chilly War--and the concepts and values hired within the public dipomacy of the Bush and Clinton Administrations to construct household and overseas consensus. It presents perception into the makes use of of presidential strength and gives a version and an indication for the way rhetoric can be utilized within the research of usa international coverage.
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Extra info for American Exceptionalism and U.S. Foreign Policy: Public Diplomacy at the End of the Cold War
Kennan's `Long Telegram' had emphasized the point that the danger of the Soviet Union lay in its attractiveness to the `tired and frightened' peoples of Europe. Kennan, as well as proposing that Communism should be met with `unalterable counterforce' wherever it appeared, also insisted that the maintenance of Americans' belief in their own exceptionalism was of vital strategic importance: Every courageous and incisive measure to solve internal problems of our own society, to improve self-confidence, discipline, morale, and community spirit of our own people, is a diplomatic victory over Moscow worth a thousand diplomatic notes and joint communiqueÂs.
Accompanying the acquisition of empire is the dilemma of the `almost chosen people', as Lincoln described the United States, riven by faith in its God-given responsibility and self-conscious self-doubt. 43 And as illustrated above, exceptionalism also influences this second characteristic of US foreign policy. Carter's vision of peaceful order-building amidst international complexity and interdependence sat uncomfortably with the unambiguous opposition to the spread of American influence and values in states like Iran and Nicaragua.
109 Order and community-building Yet many liberals and conservatives agreed on the need to replace the Cold War system with some other system of order maintenance and the formulation of new organizing principles, concepts and goals. For example, the liberal Nation stated: `The Cold War was a political and ideological system for organizing and ordering world power, and it is undergoing a profound evolutionary transformation that will produce no clear triumph or defeat. [. '110 Some suggested that the left was `losing the war of ideas', that it needed to `innovate and introduce ideas' in order to contribute to `the agenda for foreign and military policy' and that it had failed to do so in the past, superseded by conservative bodies such as the Committee on the Present Danger, the Heritage Foundation and the American Enterprise Institute.