An Introduction to Statistical Methods and Data Analysis by R. Lyman Ott, Micheal T. Longnecker

By R. Lyman Ott, Micheal T. Longnecker

Facts is a inspiration procedure. during this accomplished creation to statistical tools and knowledge research, the method is gifted using a four-step process: 1) amassing information, 2) summarizing information, three) studying facts, and four) speaking the result of info analyses.

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This can be illustrated by an example. Much research and public interest centers on the effect of cigarette smoking on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. One possible experimental design would be to randomize a fixed number of individuals (say, 1,000) to each of two groups—one group would be required to smoke cigarettes for the duration of the study (say, 10 years), while those in the second group would not be allowed to smoke throughout the study. At the end of the study, the two groups would be compared for lung cancer and cardiovascular disease.

Finally, errors in recording the responses can lead to erroneous results. Information can also be obtained from persons in the sample through telephone interviews. With the competition among telephone service providers, an interviewer can place any number of calls to specified areas of the country relatively inexpensively. Surveys conducted through telephone interviews are frequently less expensive than personal interviews, owing to the elimination of travel expenses. 2 Surveys self-administered questionnaire direct observation 25 The investigator can also monitor the interviews to be certain that the specified interview procedure is being followed.

We will consider one running of the experiment in which we have four tires of each of the four brands. First, we need to decide how to assign the tires to the cars. We could randomly assign a single brand to each car, but this would result in a design having the unit of measurement the total loss of tread for all four tires on the car and not the individual tire loss. Thus, we must randomly assign the sixteen tires to the four cars. In Chapter 15, we will demonstrate how this randomization is conducted.

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