Analysis and Control System Techniques for Electric Power by Cornelius T. Leondes

By Cornelius T. Leondes

This can be a 4 quantity series dedicated to the numerous subject matter of advances in electrical strength structures research and regulate recommendations. The extensive components concerned comprise tranmission line and transformer modelling. The 4 quantity series will specialise in advances in parts together with strength stream research, monetary operation of energy structures, generator modelling, energy method balance, voltage and tool regulate recommendations, and approach safety

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61-114]. Real Power Case. Assume that the bus voltages are fixed. Then the angle difference of the two bus system varies with power drawn from bus 2 in the manner P2 - - A - (EÎ c o s ξ 12 - c o s ( δ 1 - δ 2 + ξ 1 2>> (25) 12 This is the well-known transmission law, a sinusoidal variation (Figure 5) [12]. Figure 5. Dependence of Real Power on Phase Angle Difference 52 MARIJA ILIC There is, no load flow solution, that is no equilibrium beyond the value M P 2 - p 2 . Below p 2 M there are two load flow solutions, that is, two equilibria.

MODELING AND CONTROL 45 A simple engineering explanation of inadequate U L T C actions is as follows. ^-equivalent model of a U L T C transformer [80] change as a function of tap position a. A U L T C does not generate power; it only distributes it from bus i to bus ; and effectively manages to increase voltage at bus / at the expense of reducing voltage at i. ) A t extremely low voltages nf the U L T C tries to maintain voltage at ; Ε,· close to Ej 9 although there is a severe reactive power deficiency at bus i, lowering voltage at bus i even further.

2 ) meaning that an increase in a l 2 causes a decrease in the controlled voltage E2, which is contrary to the basic reason for designing a control function of the form of Eq. (21) to increase controlled voltage. This means that under certain unusual conditions it could happen that, because of the network conditions, the basic control function of Eq. (21) does not have the desired systemwide effect of increasing load voltage E2 by increasing the tap position a12. Further analysis of a sign change in Equation (23) shows that the sign change could occur if either ( {dE2j r QI 1 1 change their signs.

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