By Panagiotis Antonios Tsonis
The attention is a fancy sensory organ, which allows visible belief of the area. hence the attention has numerous tissues that do diversified projects. the most simple elements of eye functionality is the sensitivity of cells to mild and its transduction notwithstanding the optic nerve to the mind. assorted organisms use alternative ways to accomplish those projects. during this feel, eye functionality turns into a crucial evolutionary point in addition. This e-book provides different animal types which are widely used for eye examine and their forte in comparing assorted features of eye improvement, evolution, body structure and affliction. * provides info at the significant animal types utilized in eye study together with invertebrates and vertebrates* presents researchers with info had to make a choice from version organisms* comprises an introductory bankruptcy at the varieties of eyes, stressing attainable universal molecular equipment
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Extra info for Animal Models in Eye Research
The power of regeneration and the stem-cell kingdom: freshwater planarians (platyhelminthes). Bioessays 28:546–559. Saló E, Baguñà J (2002). Regeneration in Planarians and other worms: New findings, new tools, and new perspectives. J Exp Zool 292:528–539. Saló E, Pineda D, Marsal M, Gonzalez J, Gremigni V, Batistoni R (2002). Genetic network of the eye in Platyhelminthes: expression and functional analysis of some players during planarian regeneration. Gene 287:67–74. Saló E, Abril JF, Adell T, Cebrià F, Eckelt K, Fernández-Taboada E, Handberg-Thorsager M, Iglesias M, Molina MD, RodríguezEsteban G (2008).
Viczian AS, Vignali R, Zuber ME, Barsacchi G, Harris WA (2003). XOtx5b and XOtx2 regulate photoreceptor and bipolar fates in the Xenopus retina. Development 130:1281–1294. Sprecher, Claude Desplan Department of Biology, New York University, New York, NY 10003-6688, USA O U T L I N E Introduction Drosophila as A Model System Anatomy and Morphology of the Drosophila Eye Early Development and Specification of Eye Precursor Cells Embryonic Origin of the Eye Early Development of the Eye-antennal Disc: Specification of Eye Versus Antenna The Retinal Determination Network (RDN) Provides the Basis for Eye Formation Function of the RDN Evolutionary Conservation of the RDN The Morphogenetic Furrow and the Specification of Photoreceptor and Accesory Cells Initiation of the Morphogenetic Furrow The Starting Point in Ommatidia Development: Specification of the R8 Photoreceptor Precursor Recruitment and Specification of R1–R7 Cell-cycle Control and Apoptosis in the Eye Planar Cell Polarity 27 27 29 Terminal Differentiation and Subtype Specification of Photoreceptors Different Ommatidia Subtypes Specification of Inner Versus Outer Photoreceptors Making Inner Photoreceptors to R7 and R8 Cells Stochastic Specification of Yellow Versus Pale Ommatidia Developmental Choice to Specify Yellow Versus Pale R8 Photoreceptors Specification of Inners Photoreceptors in the Dorsal Rim Area (DRA) 29 30 30 31 31 33 34 34 36 37 INTRODUCTION The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster was first introduced as a genetic model system about a century ago (Fig.
Posterior to the furrow, most cells progress form G1 to S-phase and express cyclin D and cyclin E. The expression of Ato in R8 and EGFR signaling in R2/R5 and R3/R4 is required to maintain these cells in G1 arrest (Baker and Yu, 2001). The transition of G1 to S-phase in the second mitotic wave depends on Notch. The decision to re-enter S-phase or to remain in G1 is tightly regulated by the levels of cyclin E (Baonza and Freeman, 2001; Firth and Baker, 2005). The major function of apoptosis, which occurs relatively late during development, is to remove excess cells of the eye.