Annual Review of Psychology, vol 54 2003 by Susan T. Fiske, Daniel L. Schacter, Carolyn Zahn-Waxler

By Susan T. Fiske, Daniel L. Schacter, Carolyn Zahn-Waxler

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The opponent process theory posits that pleasant doses of a drug activate a dose-dependent a-process in brain reward circuits, which in turn triggers activation of a negative or opponent b-process. Usually the b-process serves to help restore homeostasis and bring brain states back to normal. The summation of the a- and b-processes creates the final subjectively experienced state felt by the person. The resulting experience is called the A-state when the summed effect is 5 Dec 2002 16:17 Annu. Rev.

Rev. Psychol. 54:25-53. org by Ball State University on 01/05/09. For personal use only. Implicit Learning? S-R HABIT LEARNING What about the idea that drugs cause pathologically strong implicit learning (unconscious S-R or S-S learning processes), which is not necessarily conscious or accessible to cognitive declaration (Tiffany 1990, Robbins & Everitt 1999a, Berke & Hyman 2000, Everitt et al. 2001)? The most prominent implicit learning view of addiction is the automatic S-R habit hypothesis. , the memory of drug pleasure) to more automatic behavior consisting primarily of S-R habits.

For personal use only. ADDICTION 45 that pursuit is underway, and is dissociated from the ability of drugs to produce pleasure; that is, addicts will pursue drugs they do not like, as well as those they like (Lamb et al. 1991, Fischman & Foltin 1992). Second, irrationality could arise from the temporary reversibility of cue-triggered “wanting,” which momentarily overrides more rational and stable life priorities (Elster 1999). Even if a person’s explicit declarative goal is abstinence, implicit incentive salience attributions can undermine these explicit goals.

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